The values of the minor_version and major_version items are the minor and major version numbers of this class file. Together, a major and a minor version number determine the version of the class file format. If a class file has major version number M and minor version number m, we denote the version of its class file format as M.m. Thus, class file format versions may be ordered lexicographically, for example, 1.5 < 2.0 < 2.1.
minor_version和major_version项的值是此类文件的次要版本号和主要版本号。主要版本号和次要版本号一起确定类文件格式的版本。如果类文件具有主版本号M和次版本号m，则我们将其类文件格式的版本表示为M.m.因此，类文件格式版本可以按字典顺序排序，例如，1.5 <2.0 <2.1。
A Java Virtual Machine implementation can support a class file format of version v if and only if v lies in some contiguous range Mi.0 ≤ v ≤ Mj.m. The release level of the Java SE platform to which a Java Virtual Machine implementation conforms is responsible for determining the range.
当且仅当v位于某个连续范围Mi.0≤v≤Mj.m时，Java虚拟机实现可以支持版本v的类文件格式。 Java SE平台的发行版级负责确定Java虚拟机实现符合的范围
Oracle’s Java Virtual Machine implementation in JDK release 1.0.2 supports class file format versions 45.0 through 45.3 inclusive. JDK releases 1.1.* support class file format versions in the range 45.0 through 45.65535 inclusive. For k ≥ 2, JDK release 1.k supports class file format versions in the range 45.0 through 44+k.0 inclusive.
JDK 1.0.2版中的Oracle Java虚拟机实现支持包含45.0到45.3类的类文件格式。 JDK发布的1.1.*支持类文件格式版本范围为45.0到45.65535（含）。对于k≥2，JDK版本1.k支持45.0到44 + k.0范围内的类文件格式版本。
The value of the constant_pool_count item is equal to the number of entries in the constant_pool table plus one. A constant_pool index is considered valid if it is greater than zero and less than constant_pool_count, with the exception for constants of type long and double noted in §4.4.5.
The constant_pool is a table of structures (§4.4) representing various string constants, class and interface names, field names, and other constants that are referred to within the ClassFile structure and its substructures. The format of each constant_pool table entry is indicated by its first “tag” byte.
The constant_pool table is indexed from 1 to constant_pool_count-1.
The value of the access_flags item is a mask of flags used to denote access permissions to and properties of this class or interface. The interpretation of each flag, when set, is as shown in Table 4.1.
Table 4.1. Class access and property modifiers
Flag Name Value Interpretation
ACC_PUBLIC 0x0001 Declared public; may be accessed from outside its package.
ACC_FINAL 0x0010 Declared final; no subclasses allowed.
ACC_SUPER 0x0020 Treat superclass methods specially when invoked by the invokespecial instruction.
ACC_INTERFACE 0x0200 Is an interface, not a class.
ACC_ABSTRACT 0x0400 Declared abstract; must not be instantiated.
ACC_SYNTHETIC 0x1000 Declared synthetic; not present in the source code.
ACC_ANNOTATION 0x2000 Declared as an annotation type.
ACC_ENUM 0x4000 Declared as an enum type.
A class may be marked with the ACC_SYNTHETIC flag to indicate that it was generated by a compiler and does not appear in source code.
The ACC_ENUM flag indicates that this class or its superclass is declared as an enumerated type.
An interface is distinguished by its ACC_INTERFACE flag being set. If its ACC_INTERFACE flag is not set, this class file defines a class, not an interface.
If the ACC_INTERFACE flag of this class file is set, its ACC_ABSTRACT flag must also be set (JLS §184.108.40.206). Such a class file must not have its ACC_FINAL, ACC_SUPER or ACC_ENUM flags set.
An annotation type must have its ACC_ANNOTATION flag set. If the ACC_ANNOTATION flag is set, the ACC_INTERFACE flag must be set as well. If the ACC_INTERFACE flag of this class file is not set, it may have any of the other flags in Table 4.1 set, except the ACC_ANNOTATION flag. However, such a class file cannot have both its ACC_FINAL and ACC_ABSTRACT flags set (JLS §220.127.116.11).
The ACC_SUPER flag indicates which of two alternative semantics is to be expressed by the invokespecial instruction (§invokespecial) if it appears in this class. Compilers to the instruction set of the Java Virtual Machine should set the ACC_SUPER flag.
The ACC_SUPER flag exists for backward compatibility with code compiled by older compilers for the Java programming language. In Oracle’s JDK prior to release 1.0.2, the compiler generated ClassFile access_flags in which the flag now representing ACC_SUPER had no assigned meaning, and Oracle’s Java Virtual Machine implementation ignored the flag if it was set.
All bits of the access_flags item not assigned in Table 4.1 are reserved for future use. They should be set to zero in generated class files and should be ignored by Java Virtual Machine implementations.
The value of the this_class item must be a valid index into the constant_pool table. The constant_pool entry at that index must be a CONSTANT_Class_info structure (§4.4.1) representing the class or interface defined by this class file.
For a class, the value of the super_class item either must be zero or must be a valid index into the constant_pool table. If the value of the super_class item is nonzero, the constant_pool entry at that index must be a CONSTANT_Class_info structure (§4.4.1) representing the direct superclass of the class defined by this class file. Neither the direct superclass nor any of its superclasses may have the ACC_FINAL flag set in the access_flags item of its ClassFile structure.
If the value of the super_class item is zero, then this class file must represent the class Object, the only class or interface without a direct superclass.
For an interface, the value of the super_class item must always be a valid index into the constant_pool table. The constant_pool entry at that index must be a CONSTANT_Class_info structure representing the class Object.
The value of the interfaces_count item gives the number of direct superinterfaces of this class or interface type.
Each value in the interfaces array must be a valid index into the constant_pool table. The constant_pool entry at each value of interfaces[i], where 0 ≤ i < interfaces_count, must be a CONSTANT_Class_info structure (§4.4.1) representing an interface that is a direct superinterface of this class or interface type, in the left-to-right order given in the source for the type.
The value of the fields_count item gives the number of field_info structures in the fields table. The field_info structures (§4.5) represent all fields, both class variables and instance variables, declared by this class or interface type.
Each value in the fields table must be a field_info (§4.5) structure giving a complete description of a field in this class or interface. The fields table includes only those fields that are declared by this class or interface. It does not include items representing fields that are inherited from superclasses or superinterfaces.
The value of the methods_count item gives the number of method_info structures in the methods table.
Each value in the methods table must be a method_info (§4.6) structure giving a complete description of a method in this class or interface. If neither of the ACC_NATIVE and ACC_ABSTRACT flags are set in the access_flags item of a method_info structure, the Java Virtual Machine instructions implementing the method are also supplied.
The method_info structures represent all methods declared by this class or interface type, including instance methods, class methods, instance initialization methods (§2.9), and any class or interface initialization method (§2.9). The methods table does not include items representing methods that are inherited from superclasses or superinterfaces.
The value of the attributes_count item gives the number of attributes (§4.7) in the attributes table of this class.
Each value of the attributes table must be an attribute_info (§4.7) structure.
The attributes defined by this specification as appearing in the attributes table of a ClassFile structure are the InnerClasses (§4.7.6), EnclosingMethod (§4.7.7), Synthetic (§4.7.8), Signature (§4.7.9), SourceFile (§4.7.10), SourceDebugExtension (§4.7.11), Deprecated (§4.7.15), RuntimeVisibleAnnotations (§4.7.16), RuntimeInvisibleAnnotations (§4.7.17), and BootstrapMethods (§4.7.21) attributes.
If a Java Virtual Machine implementation recognizes class files whose version number is 49.0 or above, it must recognize and correctly read Signature (§4.7.9), RuntimeVisibleAnnotations (§4.7.16), and RuntimeInvisibleAnnotations (§4.7.17) attributes found in the attributes table of a ClassFile structure of a class file whose version number is 49.0 or above.
If a Java Virtual Machine implementation recognizes class files whose version number is 51.0 or above, it must recognize and correctly read BootstrapMethods (§4.7.21) attributes found in the attributes table of a ClassFile structure of a class file whose version number is 51.0 or above.
A Java Virtual Machine implementation is required to silently ignore any or all attributes in the attributes table of a ClassFile structure that it does not recognize. Attributes not defined in this specification are not allowed to affect the semantics of the class file, but only to provide additional descriptive information (§4.7.1).
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